Volume 6, Issue 6, December 2017, Page: 117-126
Transboundary Conservation Areas in African Mountains: Opportunities and Challenges for Addressing Global Change
Nakileza Bob Roga, Department of Environmental Management, Makerere University, Mountain Resource Centre, Kampala, Uganda
Wilem Ferguson, Centre of Environmental Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Festus Bagoora, National Environment Management Authority, Kampala, Uganda
Received: Jul. 24, 2017;       Accepted: Aug. 21, 2017;       Published: Oct. 13, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.earth.20170606.13      View  1638      Downloads  48
Abstract
The last 15 years have seen the establishment of several transboundary conservation areas (TBCAs) in Africa, presenting a unique opportunity of using an integrated ecosystem approach for promoting sustainable ecosystems services. TBCAs have unique characteristics for livelihood improvement of adjacent human communities. Mountain TBCAs in Africa, are increasingly being threatened due to commercial exploitation as well as population and commercial growth, resulting in logging, conflicts and poor land use practices. This is being exacerbated by challenges of climate change. We examined the potential of the TBCA approach for the alleviation of such threats and promoting sustainable mountain development including adaptation and coping mechanisms with respect to climate change. Data and information was gathered largely through field observations, discussions and relevant secondary sources. The results revealed that: 1) While single countries have developed frontier areas within the established TBPAs there is a lack of transboundary governance that enables transboundary development of infrastructure and the sustainable management of natural resources. 2) Socio-economic development and adaptation of human communities towards climate change inside TBPAs have largely taken place as part of activities not connected to the establishment of a TBCA. In conclusion for realising the exceptional opportunities that TBPAs offer, two things are important; 1) To date, biodiversity conservation inside TBPAs has been emphasised. Sustainable livelihood improvement inside a TBPAs should be the point of departure for achieving conservation of natural resources including biodiversity. 2) The establishment of consistent transboundary governance is crucial for achieving that.
Keywords
African Mountains, Global Change, Trans-Boundary, Conservation Area
To cite this article
Nakileza Bob Roga, Wilem Ferguson, Festus Bagoora, Transboundary Conservation Areas in African Mountains: Opportunities and Challenges for Addressing Global Change, Earth Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2017, pp. 117-126. doi: 10.11648/j.earth.20170606.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
National Academy of Sciences, 2000. Global change Ecosystems Research. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9983.html.
[2]
IISD, (2011). Mountain Day Bulletin, 194 (1). http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop17/md/html/ymbvol194num1e.html
[3]
IHDP (2002). Transboundary PA http://www.eoearth.org/article/Transboundary_protected_areas IHDP, (2002). Newsletter.
[4]
Peine J. D & Martinka C. J. Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Protected Areas: Implications for management. P 55-75. In Pernetta, J. C.; Leemans, R.; Elder, D. & Humphrey, S. (Eds). 1994. Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Species: Implications for Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. viii+ 104 pp.
[5]
Thorsell, J. (1990): Parks on the Borderline: Experience in Transfrontier Conservation. – IUCN Publication Services, Cambridge (UK).
[6]
Jones, J. L. 2010. Transboundary conservation in Southern Africa: Exploring conflict between local resource access and conservation. http://www.milleniumassessment.org/dcouments/bridging/papers/jones.jennifer.pdf
[7]
Vasilijević, M., Zunckel, K., McKinney, M., Erg, B., Schoon, M., Rosen Michel, T. (2015). Transboundary Conservation: A systematic and integrated approach. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 23, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. xii + 107 pp.
[8]
Petursson, J. G., P. Vedeld, & A. Vatn (2013). Going transboundary? An institutional analysis of transboundary protected area management challenges at Mt Elgon, East Africa. Ecology and Society 18(4): 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05729-180428.
[9]
Messerli B, Viviroli D. & Weingartner R. 2004. Mountains of the World: Vulnerable Water Towers for the 21st Century. AMBIO. spec. report No. 13, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm: 29 –34.
[10]
Smith R. J., J. Easton; B. A. Nhancale et al. (2008). Designing a transfrontier conservation landscape for the Maputaland centre of endemism using biodiversity, economic and threat data. Biological Conservation 141: 2127-2138.
[11]
Sandwith, T. S., Shine, C., Hamilton, L. S. & Sheppard, D. A. 2001. Transboundary protected areas for peace and co-operation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U. K. Available at www.wcpa.iucn.org.
[12]
DEA. Department of Environmental Affairs, South Africa. (2000). Signing of the Lubombo Protocol, Durban, 22 June 2000 - Speech delivered by Minister Helder dos Santos Felix Monteiro Mutela of Mozambique. www.environment.gov.za.
[13]
Auclair L., P. Baudot, D. Genin et al. (2011). Patrimony for Resilience: Evidence from the Forest Agdal in the Moroccan High Atlas Mountains. Ecology And Society 16(4). Doi: 10.5751/ES-04429-160424.
[14]
Muhweezi A. B.; G. M. Sikoyo, & M. Chemonges. (2007). Introducing a transboundary ecosystem management approach in the Mount Elgon region: The need for strengthened institutional collaboration Mountain Research And Development 27: 215-219.
[15]
Petursson J. G., P. Vedeld, & J. Kaboggoza. (2011). Transboundary Biodiversity Management: Institutions, Local Stakeholders, and Protected Areas: A Case Study From Mt. Elgon, Uganda and Kenya. Society & Natural Resources, 24: 1304-1321.
[16]
Mugagga F., V. Kakembo, & M. Buyinza. (2012). Land use changes on the slopes of Mount Elgon and the implications for the occurrence of landslides. CATENA 90: 39-46.
[17]
Gorsevski V., E. Kasischke, J. Dempewolf et al. (2012). Analysis of the Impacts of armed conflict on the Eastern Afromontane forest region on the South Sudan - Uganda border using multitemporal Landsat imagery. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 118: 10-20.
[18]
Wachira K., Muluka B., & Wepundi M. 2001. Mt Elgon conflict: A rapid assessment of the understanding of socio-economic, governance and security factors. Amani papers. UNDP/OCHA.
[19]
Lanjou A. Kayitare. A., Rainer, H., Rutagarama E., Sivha, M., Asuma, S., and Kalpers J. 2001 Beyond boundaries: Transboundary natural resource management for Mountain Gorillas in the Virunga-Bwindi Region. Biodiversity support programme. Washington D. C. pp 78.
[20]
Thompson L. G.; Brecher H. H.; Mosley-Thompson E.; et al. (2009). Glacier loss on Kilimanjaro continues unabated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 19770-19775.
[21]
Otte, I., F. Detsch., E. Mwangomo., A. Hemp., T. Appelhans & T. Nauss (2016) Multidecadal trends and internannual variability of rainfall as observed from Five Lowland Stations at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. America Meteorological Society. http://doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0062.s1.
[22]
Hemp, A. (2005) Climate change driven forest fires marginalize the impact of ice cap wasting on Kilimanjaro. Global Change Biology 11: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00968.x.
[23]
AWF, IGCP and EcoAdapt. (2012) The implications of global change for Gorilla conservation in the Albertine Rift. A white paper.
[24]
Kruger A. C. (2006). Observed trends in daily precipitation indices in South Africa: 1910-2004. International Journal Of Climatology 26: 2275-2285.
[25]
Oseni T. O., M. T. Masarirambi. (2011). Effect of climate change on maize (Zea mays) production and food security in Swaziland. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 11: 385-391.
[26]
MERECP [Mt Elgon Regional Conservation Project] project profile, LVBC, (2012). http://www.lvbcom.org/
[27]
Simiyu R. R. (2008). Militianisation of Resource Conflicts: The Case of Land-Based Conflict in the Mount Elgon Region of Western Kenya. Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, Johannesburg. 80pp.
[28]
Wittmayer J. M. & B. Buescher. (2010). Conserving Conflict? Transfrontier Conservation, Development Discourses and Local Conflict Between South Africa and Lesotho. Human Ecology 38: 763-773.
[29]
Grenfell M. C., W. N. Ellery & S. E. Grenfell. (2009). Valley morphology and sediment cascades within a wetland system in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg Foothills, Eastern South Africa CATENA 78: 20-35.
[30]
Vedeld P, Sjaastad E, Angelsen A, Berg GK (2005). Counting on the Environment: Forest Incomes for the Rural Poor. Environment Department Working Paper, No. 98. World Bank, Washington D. C.
[31]
Pelser A. & L. Letsela. (2012). Mainstreaming sustainability into biodiversity conservation in Lesotho. Environment, Development and Sustainability 14: 45-65.
[32]
Naong, M. N. (2011). Learner pregnancy - perceptions on its prevalence and the Child Support Grant (CSG) being the possible cause in South African secondary schools. Journal Of Youth Studies 14: 901-920.
[33]
Taylor, R. G., Mileham, L. J., Tindimugaya, C., Majugu, A., Muwanga, A., Nakileza, N., 2006. Recent recession in the Rwenzori Mountains of East Africa due to rising air temperature. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L10402.
[34]
Desanker, P. V. 2002. Impact of climate change on life in Africa. Report to the World Life Fund Climate Change Program, Washington.
Browse journals by subject